August 2, 2021

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MEGEX: Data-Free Model Extraction Attack against Gradient-Based Explainable AI. (arXiv:2107.08909v1 [cs.CR])

The advance of explainable artificial intelligence, which provides reasons
for its predictions, is expected to accelerate the use of deep neural networks
in the real world like Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS) that returns
predictions on queried data with the trained model. Deep neural networks
deployed in MLaaS face the threat of model extraction attacks. A model
extraction attack is an attack to violate intellectual property and privacy in
which an adversary steals trained models in a cloud using only their
predictions. In particular, a data-free model extraction attack has been
proposed recently and is more critical. In this attack, an adversary uses a
generative model instead of preparing input data. The feasibility of this
attack, however, needs to be studied since it requires more queries than that
with surrogate datasets. In this paper, we propose MEGEX, a data-free model
extraction attack against a gradient-based explainable AI. In this method, an
adversary uses the explanations to train the generative model and reduces the
number of queries to steal the model. Our experiments show that our proposed
method reconstructs high-accuracy models — 0.97$times$ and 0.98$times$ the
victim model accuracy on SVHN and CIFAR-10 datasets given 2M and 20M queries,
respectively. This implies that there is a trade-off between the
interpretability of models and the difficulty of stealing them.