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Beneficial Perturbations Network for Defending Adversarial Examples. (arXiv:2009.12724v3 [cs.LG] UPDATED)

Deep neural networks can be fooled by adversarial attacks: adding carefully
computed small adversarial perturbations to clean inputs can cause
misclassification on state-of-the-art machine learning models. The reason is
that neural networks fail to accommodate the distribution drift of the input
data caused by adversarial perturbations. Here, we present a new solution –
Beneficial Perturbation Network (BPN) – to defend against adversarial attacks
by fixing the distribution drift. During training, BPN generates and leverages
beneficial perturbations (somewhat opposite to well-known adversarial
perturbations) by adding new, out-of-network biasing units. Biasing units
influence the parameter space of the network, to preempt and neutralize future
adversarial perturbations on input data samples. To achieve this, BPN creates
reverse adversarial attacks during training, with very little cost, by
recycling the training gradients already computed. Reverse attacks are captured
by the biasing units, and the biases can in turn effectively defend against
future adversarial examples. Reverse attacks are a shortcut, i.e., they affect
the network’s parameters without requiring instantiation of adversarial
examples that could assist training. We provide comprehensive empirical
evidence showing that 1) BPN is robust to adversarial examples and is much more
running memory and computationally efficient compared to classical adversarial
training. 2) BPN can defend against adversarial examples with negligible
additional computation and parameter costs compared to training only on clean
examples; 3) BPN hurts the accuracy on clean examples much less than classic
adversarial training; 4) BPN can improve the generalization of the network 5)
BPN trained only with Fast Gradient Sign Attack can generalize to defend PGD
attacks.