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Survey of Crosschain Communications Protocols. (arXiv:2004.09494v4 [cs.CR] UPDATED)

Crosschain communications allows information to be communicated between
blockchains. Consensus in the context of crosschain communications relates to
how participants on one blockchain are convinced of the state of a remote
blockchain. It describes how parties associated with a source blockchain come
to agreement and communicate with a destination blockchain such that
information from the source blockchain can be trusted. This paper surveys
crosschain communications protocols, presenting them based on the top-level
usage scenarios they are trying to meet: value swapping, crosschain messaging,
and blockchain pinning. It analyses how each protocol achieves crosschain
consensus, what trust assumptions are made, their ability to operate
successfully in Permissionless and Permissioned blockchains contexts, and
whether the protocol delivers atomic updates across blockchains.